AviationWeather.ws

Aviation Weather

full text of the classic FAA guide

INDEX

A

Adiabatic Process, 47

Adiabatic Rate of Cooling—

Dry, 48

Moist, 48

Advection, 24

Advection Fog, 127, 153

Aerodynamic Contrails, 143

Airborne Weather Radar, 120

Aircraft Accidents, 125

Aircraft Observation (APOB), 187

Air Density. See Atmosphere.

Air Mass, 63, 148

Modification, 64

Source Region, 63

Thunderstorms. See Thunderstorms.

Altimeter, 17

Altimeter Setting, 18

Altimetry, 17

Altitude, 17

Corrected, 18

Density. See Density Altitude.

Indicated, 17

Pressure, 19

True, 17

Altocumulus Clouds. See Clouds.

Altostratus Clouds. See Clouds.

Aneroid Barometer, 12, 17

Anticyclone, 29

Arctic, 147

Air Masses, 148

Aurora Borealis, 152

Blowing Snow, 153

Clouds, 151

Flying Weather, 154

Fog, 153

Icing, 153

Light from Celestial Bodies, 152

Precipitation, 151

Reflection by Snow Cover, 152

Whiteout, 153

Atmosphere, 1

Composition of, 2

Density of, 3

Standard, 2, 13, 17

Structure of, 2

Atmospheric Pressure, 11

Measurement of, 11

Aurora Borealis, 152

B

Barometer, 17

Aneroid, 12,17

Mercurial, 12

Blowing Restrictions to Visibility, 129, 153

Bora, 32

C

Canopy Static, 145

Carburetor Icing, 97

Ceiling, 115

Celsius (Centigrade) Temperature Scale, 6

Change of State, 39

Changes in Upward and Downward Moving Air, 47

Chinook, 32

Cirrocumulus Clouds. See Clouds.

Cirrostratus Clouds. See Clouds.

Cirrus Clouds. See Clouds.

Cirrus Haze, 144

Clear Air Turbulence (CAT), 87, 142

Clouds, 53

Altocumulus, 56

Altocumulus Castellanus, 57

Altostratus, 56

Cirriform, 54

Cirrocumulus, 55

Cirrostratus, 55

Cirrus, 54, 139

Classification, 53

Composition, 42

Cumuliform, 50

Cumulonimbus, 54, 61, 81

Cumulonimbus Mamma, 114

Cumulus, 53, 60

Families, 53

Formation, 37,42

Funnel, 113

High, 54

Identification, 53

Lenticular, 58, 85, 199

Low, 54

Middle, 54

Nimbostratus, 54, 59

Roll, 115

Rotor, 85

Standing Lenticular, 58, 85, 199

Standing Wave, 58, 84, 199

Stratiform, 50

Stratocumulus, 60, 83

Stratus, 53, 59, 128

Towering Cumulus, 61

Vertically Developed, 54

Col, 15

Cold Front. See Front

Cold Low, 36

Common IFR Producer, 125

Compressional Warming, 47

Condensation, 39

Condensation Nuclei, 40

Condensation Trails, 143

Constant Pressure Analysis, 16

Constant Pressure Chart, 16

Constant Pressure Surface, 17

Contour, 16

Contour Analysis. See Constant Pressure Analysis.

Convection, 23

Convective Currents, 24,80

Convective Turbulence, 80

Cooling by Expansion, 47

Coriolis Force, 25, 29

Corrected Altitude, 18

Cross-Country Soaring, 190, 200

Cumuliform Clouds. See Clouds.

Cumulonimbus Clouds. See Clouds.

Cumulus Clouds. See Clouds.

Cyclone, 29

Tropical, 164

D

Deflective Force. See Coriolis Force.

Density Altitude, 19

Computing, 21

Density of Air, 3

Dew, 41

Dew Point, 38

Change with Altitude, 51

Dew Point Front, 76

Dissipation Trails, 144

Diurnal Temperature Range, 7

Do's and Don'ts of Thunderstorm Flying, 121

Downdraft,83, 111

Drainage Wind, 32

Drizzle. See Precipitation.

Dry Adiabatic Rate of Cooling, 48

Dry Line, 76

Dust, 129

Dust Devil, 52, 173

E

Easterly Wave, 163

Embedded Thunderstorms. See Thunderstorms.

Evaporation, 39

Exhaust Trails, 143

Expansional Cooling, 47

F

Fahrenheit Temperature Scale, 6

First Gust, 111

Flight Planning, 21, 45, 52, 78, 85, 90, 102, 121, 130, 143, 155

Fog, 42, 126

Advection, 127, 153

Ground, 126

Ice, 128, 153

Precipitation Induced, 128

Radiation, 126

Sea, 127

Steam, 153

Upslope, 127

Freezing Precipitation. See Precipitation.

Frictional Force, 29

Front, 64, 148

Cold, 65

Dew Point, 76

Occluded, 67

Stationary, 65

Warm, 65

Frontal Discontinuities, 65

Frontal Soaring, 191

Frontal Waves and Occlusion, 66

Frontal Weather, 72, 100, 112

Frontogenesis, 71

Frontolysis, 71

Frost, 41, 102, 153

Frozen Precipitation. See Precipitation.

Funnel Cloud, 113

G

General Circulation, 26

Ground Fog, 126

H

Hail, 43, 115

Haze, 129

Heat and Temperature, 6

Latent, 40

Heating by Compression, 47

Height Contour, 16

High Altitude Weather, 135

High Clouds. See Clouds.

High Level Haze, 144

High Pressure System, 15

Hill Soaring, 195

Humidity, 38

Hurricane, 164

Hurricane Reconnaissance, 167

Hypoxia, 3

I

Ice Fog, 128, 153

Icing—

Aircraft, 41, 91, 153

Carburetor, 97

Clear, 92

Effects of, 91

Ground, 102

High Altitude, 145

Icing and Cloud Types, 99

Induction System, 97

Instrument, 98

Intensities, 93, 104

Mixed, 93

Rime, 92

Structural, 92

Thunderstorm, 101, 114

Inactive Front, 74

Indicated Altitude, 17

Induced Trough, 162

Induction System Icing, 97

Instability, 49, 64

Instability Line, 75

Instrument Icing, 98

Intertropical Convergence Zone, 159

Inversion, 9

Isobar, 15

Isobaric Analysis, 15

J

Jet Stream, 31, 136

Cirrus, 139

Related to Surface Systems, 138

Related to Tropopause, 31, 136

Turbulence, 142

K

Katabatic Wind, 32

L

Lake Effect, 43

Land and Sea Breezes, 32

Lapse Rate, 9

Latent Heat, 40

Lenticular Cloud. See Clouds.

Lift, 171

Lightning, 116

Local Winds, 31

Low Clouds. See Clouds.

Low Pressure Systems, 15, 35

Non-Frontal, 36, 70

Low Stratus Clouds. See Clouds.

M

Mechanical Turbulence, 82

Melting, 39

Melting Point, 6

Mercurial Barometer, 12

Middle Clouds. See Clouds.

Moist Adiabatic Rate of Cooling, 48

Moisture, 37

Monsoon, 160

Mountain Flying, 85

Mountain Wave, 58, 83, 198

Mountain Wave Soaring, 198

Mountain Wind, 31

N

Nimbostratus Clouds. See Clouds.

Non-Frontal Low, 36, 70

Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis), 152

O

Obscured Sky, 130

Obstructions to Wind Flow, 82

Occluded Front. See Front.

Oxygen Pressure, 3

Oxygen, Use of, 4

P

Pilot Reports, 90, 104, 143, 155

Pitot Tube Icing, 98

Plow Wind, 111

Polar Easterlies, 29

Polar Outbreak, 29

Precipitation, 37, 42

Drizzle, 43,130

Formation, 42

Freezing, 43

Frozen, 43

Hail, 43, 115

Ice Pellets, 43

Rain, 39, 43, 130

Snow, 43, 130

Precipitation Induced Fog, 128

Precipitation Static, 117

Pressure Altitude, 19

Pressure Analysis, 15

Pressure, Atmospheric, 11

Measurement of, 11

Sea Level, 13

Station, 12

Units of, 12

Variation with Altitude, 12, 36

Variation with Seasons, 27

Variation with Temperature, 13, 27

Variation with Topography, 29

Pressure Gradient, 24

Pressure Gradient Force, 24

Pressure Patterns, 15, 35

Pressure Surface, Constant, 17

Pressure Systems, 15, 35

Pressure Variation. See Pressure.

Pressurization, 4

Prevailing Westerlies, 29

Propeller Icing, 95

Pseudo-Adiabatic Chart, 184

Q

Quasi-Stationary Front, 65

R

Radiation, 6

Radiation Fog, 126

Radiosonde, 16

Rain. See Precipitation.

Relative Humidity, 38

Restrictions to Visibility, 36, 115, 126, 129

Ridge, 15, 35

Ridge or Hill Soaring, 195

Rime. See Icing.

Roll Cloud. See Clouds.

Rotor, 85

Rotor Cloud. See Clouds.

S

Saint Elmo's Fire, 117

Santa Ana Wind, 32

Saturated Adiabatic Rate of Cooling, 48

Saturated Air, 41

Sea Breeze, 32

Sea Breeze Front, 191

Sea Breeze Soaring, 191

Sea Fog, 127

Sea Level Pressure, 13

Sea Smoke, 153

Shear Line, 162

Shear, Wind. See Wind Shear.

Signposts in the Sky, 50, 62

Sink. 171

Sink Rate, 171

Slant Visibility, 130

Smoke, 129

Smoke Front, 193

Snow. See Precipitation.

Soaring—

Cross-Country, 190, 191, 200

Frontal, 191

Mountain Wave, 198

Ridge or Hill, 195

Sea Breeze, 191

Thermal. 172

Turbulence, 173, 176, 191, 195, 199

Soaring Weather, 171

Solar Radiation, 6

Source Regions of Air Masses, 63

Spatial Disorientation, 125

Spread, Temperature-Dew Point, 38

Squall Line, 114

Stability, 49, 64

Stable Air, 47, 64

Standard Atmosphere, 2, 13, 17

Standard Atmospheric Pressure, 13

Standing Wave. See Mountain Wave.

Static—

Canopy, 145

Precipitation, 117

Station Pressure, 12

Stationary Front See Front.

Steam Fog, 153

Stratiform Clouds. See Clouds.

Stratocumulus Clouds. See Clouds.

Stratosphere, 2

Stratus Clouds. See Clouds.

Sublimation, 39, 41

Subtropical High Pressure Belt, 27, 158

Supercooled Water, 41

Surface Weather Chart, 15

T

Taku, 32

Temperature, 6

Diurnal Range, 7

Inversion, 9

Lapse Rate, 9

Measurement, 6

Scales, 6

Seasonal Range, 7

Variation with Height, 9

Variation with Latitude, 7

Variation with Topography, 7

World, 7

Temperature-Dew Point Spread, 38

Terrain Effects, 43, 101, 150

Terrestrial Radiation, 6

Thermal, 172

Height, 180

Index, 186

Lift, 172

Locating, 173

Streets, 180

Strength, 180

Structure, 178

Terrain Effects on, 173

Types of, 178

Thermal Low, 36, 71

Thermal Soaring, 172

Thunderstorm, 36, 61, 105, 145

Air Mass, 112

Avoidance, 120

Climatology, 105

Effect on Altimeters, 116

Electricity, 116

Embedded, 51, 72, 101, 121

Flying, 121

Formation, 111

Frontal, 72, 112

Hazards, 113

Life Cycle, 111

Penetration, 123

Radar Observations of, 120

Seasonal Distribution, 105

Severe, 112

Stages of, 111

Steady State, 112

Structure, 111

Tornado, 113

Trade Winds, 29, 158

Tropical—

Circulation, 158

Cyclone, 164

Depression, 164

Easterly Wave, 163

High Pressure Belts, 27, 158

Intertropical Convergence Zone, 159

Monsoon, 160

Shear Line, 162

Storm, 164

Trade Wind Belts, 27, 158

Trough Aloft, 162

Wave, 163

Tropical Weather, 157

Tropopause, 2, 31, 136

Troposphere, 2

Trough, 15, 35

Aloft, 36, 162

True Altitude, 17

Turbulence, 79

Clear Air, 87, 142

Convective, 80

In Thunderstorms, 81, 114

Mechanical, 82

Wake, 88

Wind Shear, 65, 86, 142

Typhoon, 164

U

Unstable Air, 47, 64

Updrafts, 50, 111

Upper Air Observations, 16, 187

Upslope Fog, 127

V

Valley Wind, 31

Virga, 39

W

Wake Turbulence, 88

Warm Front. See Front.

Warming by Compression, 47

Water Surface, Effect of, 7, 27, 32, 43, 64, 150

Water Vapor, 37

Waterspout, 113

Weather and Aircraft Accidents, 125

Whiteout, 153

Willy-Willy, 164

Wind, 23

Wind Gusts, 111

Wind Shadow, 197, 200

Wind Shear, 34, 65, 86

Wind Shear Turbulence, 65, 86, 142

Wind Systems, 35


 

A PDF version of this book is avilable here. You may be able to buy a printed copy of the book from amazon.com.